Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

April 2024

  • During the month of March, the weather systems that affected the country were the ridge of high pressure area (HPA), trough of low pressure area, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), easterlies, and localized thunderstorms.
  • Based from the Situational Report of NDRRMC, as of April 2024, a total of 66,065 hectares of crops were damaged due to El Niño with an estimated cost of Php 3.94B.
  • 30 provinces were under dry spell condition (Batanes, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes, Marinduque, Quezon, Romblon, Sorsogon, Aklan, Northern Samar, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Basilan, Bukidnon, Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Lanao del Sur, North Cotabato, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Davao City, Davao Occidental, and Maguindanao) while 45 provinces were under drought condition (Spratly Islands, Abra, Apayao, Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Cavite, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Masbate, Metropolitan Manila, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Palawan, Rizal, Antique, Biliran, Bohol, Capiz, Cebu, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Iloilo, Leyte, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Samar, Siquijor, Southern Leyte, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay)
  • Generally, way below to below normal rainfall conditions were experienced in most parts of the country with some patches of near normal rainfall condition. (Figure 1). Baler Synoptic Station recorded the highest rainfall amount for the month of April (124.7 mm), followed by Calapan Synoptic Station (118.3 mm) and Borongan Synoptic Station (117.2 mm).
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas; Figure 3):
    • Moist – Albay, Sorsogon, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Davao del; Norte, Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte
    • Dry – Rest of the country
  • Generally, near-average to warmer than average mean surface air temperatures were observed across the country (Figure 2). Tarlac College of Agriculture in Tarlac recorded the highest maximum temperature of 40.3°C (April 27) while the coldest temperature was recorded in BSU La Trinidad Synoptic Station at 11.4°C (April 1).
  • Iba Synoptic Station in Zambales obtained the highest heat index during the month of April (53°C on April 28) followed by Dagupan City Synoptic Station in Pangasinan with 51°C (April 29), Pili, Camarines Sur with 49°C (April 28), and Aparri, Cagayan and Sangley Point in Cavite with both 48°C heat index on April 23. The Heat Index is a human discomfort index that gives the apparent temperature on what humans perceive or feel as the temperature (from the surroundings) affecting the body. High air temperature and high relative humidity results to high apparent temperature.
  • Land and Seedbed Preparation (including preparation for garden plot, urban gardening, and upland farms), (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, and Davao Region
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
  • Rice – Central Luzon, CALABARZON, and Central Visayas
  • Corn – Central Visayas
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development; growing – other cash rops)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, and BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, and BARMM
  • watermelon, abaca, avocado, durian, mangosteen, marang, pomelo, dragon fruit, pineapple, star apple, turnip, guyabano, aratilis, lanzones, guava, cashew, atis, strawberry, papaya, banana, mango, jackfruit, rambutan, coconut, chayote, string bean, eggplant, sweet potato, patola, pechay, ampalaya, okra, malunggay, mustard, kangkong, jute, squash, tomato, upo, cassava, sweet pepper, mushroom, beans, sweet peas, cabbage, carrot, onion, ginger, broccoli, beets, potato, Baguio beans, onion leeks, lettuce, taro, long chili, winged bean, tamarind, lemongrass, pandan, sampaloc, chili, mung bean, camote tops, fern leaves, soybean, camansi, kamias, ube, cadios, cucumber, kangkong, alugbati, patani, cauliflower, celery, peanut, snap bean, rubber, lemon, tobacco, sugarcane, cacao, coffee, calamansi, sugarcane, pili, condol
  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and BARMM
  • Maturing/Ripening
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Central Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, and SOCCSKSARGEN
  • Harvesting Stage
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, National Capital Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and Caraga
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and Caraga
  • lemon, strawberry, star apple, turnip, dragon fruit, strawberry, guyabano, melon, watermelon, avocado, turnip, mango, aratilis, jackfruit, mango, pineapple, pili, rambutan, lanzones, apple guava, pomelo, durian, mangosteen, guava, banana, coconut, papaya, pineapple, mung bean, squash, ampalaya, string bean, peanut, patola, malunggay, eggplant, okra, camote tops, tomato, pechay, onion, garlic, sweet potato, ginger, cassava, chayote, cucumber, cabbage, broccoli, Baguio beans, beets, potato, onion leeks, carrot, lettuce, bell pepper, upo, long chili, chili pepper, cauliflower, radish, celery, winged bean, banana blossom, pechay Baguio, kangkong, alugbati, jute, radish, habichuelas, mustard, tomato, taro, camansi, ube, mustard, mushroom, cadios, pandan, lemongrass, spring onion, calamansi, caimito, papaya, mango, sugarcane, coffee, cacao
Farm Operations:
  • Land cultivation and preparation
  • Irrigation and watering activities
  • Mulching
  • Pruning
  • Removal of weeds
  • Grass cutting
  • Spraying of herbicides, pesticides, molluscicide, and insecticides
  • Applying of fertilizers
  • Seed distribution
  • Field monitoring
  • Field clearing
  • Field drying
  • Furrowing
  • Delivery of fresh produce
  • Milling of harvested sugarcane
  • Copra making and drying
  • Drying, storing and milling of rice and corn
  • Ploughing
  • Sucker removing
  • Harrowing
  • Urban vegetable gardening
  • Cleaning of garden and farms
  • Pest and diseases management
The agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pest and disease infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of Department of Agriculture in their respective regions. For daily farm weather and climate conditions, you may visit PAGASA website (https://pagasa.dost.gov.ph/
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the country during the month of April are the easterlies, ridge of high pressure area, intertropical convergence zone, low pressure area (LPA), localized thunderstorms, and none or one (1 or 2) tropical cyclone (TC) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Below normal rainfall over most parts of Luzon, Visayas and northern Mindanao, while near normal in northern Luzon and the rest of Mindanao. High probability for below normal over most parts of the country (Figure 4).
  • Below average to warmer than average temperatures will be experienced throughout the country (Figure 5).
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 15.2ºC – 29.0ºC for upland farms while 19.0ºC – 40.8ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 21.4ºC – 37.5ºC; while the upland farms in Mindanao will have 16.0ºC – 36.3ºC and 21.4ºC – 38.8ºC for lowland farms.
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Alert and Warning System: EL NIÑO ADVISORY No. 10 / LA NIÑA WATCH (Figure 6). El Niño in the tropical Pacific continues to weaken but impacts (hotter and drier conditions) continue. A transition from El Niño to ENSO-neutral is expected in April-May-June (AMJ) 2024 season (85% chance). Probability of La Nina (60% chance) in June-July-August (JJA) 2024 season.
  • Pre-developing La Niña historically, is characterized by below normal rainfall, therefore, the possibility of a slight delay on the onset of rainy season is likely with the combined effects of the ongoing El Niño, which could bring negative impacts (such as dry spells and droughts) in some areas of the country that will likely be manifested during the last quarter up to the first quarter of the year. Mulching must be done to prevent the rapid loss of soil moisture and to maintain the good growing condition of crops.
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