Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

December 2022


  • During the month of December, the weather systems that affected the country were the northeast monsoon, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), easterlies, shear line, low pressure areas (LPAs), one (1) tropical cyclone, and localized thunderstorms.
  • Northeast monsoon, shear line and LPA brought heavy rains over most parts the country during the month of December particularly at the eastern section of the archipelago. On the other hand, Tropical Storm (TS) “Rosal” was in the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) on 10-13 December 2022. Although TS “Rosal” did not landfall, significant amount of rainfall was observed in most areas of Aurora, Southern Luzon and Visayas which resulted to flooding in some provinces. Due to the strong northeast monsoon, TS “Rosal” weakened into LPA (December 13). Gradual improvement of weather was experienced over the affected areas as the weather disturbance moves away from the country.
  • Below to near-normal rainfall conditions were observed in most parts of Luzon and Visayas except for way below normal condition over Western and Central Luzon and above normal rainfall condition in some areas of the extreme portion of Northern Luzon, Palawan and Eastern Samar. Most provinces in Mindanao experienced near to above normal rainfall conditions. The top three highest recorded rainfall for the month of December were Borongan Synoptic Station (1154.4 mm) followed by Daet Synoptic Station (881.8 mm) and Surigao City Synoptic Station (803.9 mm).
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Eastern Visayas, Batanes, Aurora, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay and Catanduanes, northern part of Zamboanga Peninsula, eastern part of Caraga
    • Moist – Cagayan, Rizal, Romblon, mainland Palawan, Iloilo
    • Dry – Rest of the country
  • Generally, near to warmer than average surface air temperatures were felt in most parts of the country except for slightly cooler than average surface temperature in Tayabas, Quezon, Daet, Camarines Norte, Coron, Palawan, General Santos City and Romblon. TCA Agromet Station recorded the highest maximum temperature of 35.9°C (December 1) while the coldest temperature was recorded in Baguio City Synoptic Station in Benguet at 12.0°C (December 25) (Figure 2).
  • La Niña Advisory #15 was issued on 07 December 2022. La Nina is weakening and is expected to persist until Dec- Jan-Feb (DJF) 2023, then transition to ENSO-neutral afterwards. La Niña increases the likelihood of having above normal rainfall conditions that could lead to potential adverse impacts (such as heavy rainfall, flashfloods and landslides) over highly vulnerable areas. Adverse impacts such as floods and landslides are likely to occur over the vulnerable areas and sectors of the society.
  • Land and Seedbed Preparation (including preparation for garden plot, urban gardening, and upland farms), (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, BARMM
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – cabbage, mustard, pechay, eggplant, cucumber, ampalaya, string bean, tomato, patola, ginger, potato, broccoli, coffee, chayote, onion leeks, cauliflower, lettuce, soybean, okra, squash, upo, mustard, celery, gabi, onion, sweet pepper, sweet peas, cassava, peanut, garlic, onion, sweet potato, banana, papaya, coconut, watermelon, melon, pepper, chili, green onion, ubi

Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, and large portion of eastern Mindanao) – Rice, string bean, soybean, patola, okra, squash, tomato, upo, mustard, pechay, celery, gabi, onion, sweet pepper, sweet peas, chayote, cassava, watermelon, melon, peanut, eggplant, garlic, sweet potato, banana, papaya, coconut, ampalaya, ubi, chili, ginger, sinkamas, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, taro, cucumber, pepper, chili, green onion, talinum, radish, beets, cauliflower

Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, and most of eastern Palawan) – Rice, peanut, ampalaya, squash, onion, sweet potato, gabi, ginger, ubi, cassava, garlic, sweet pepper, okra, tomato, cabbage, potato, broccoli, coffee, chayote, pechay, onion leeks, cauliflower, lettuce, cucumber, patola, eggplant, coconut, soybean, mungo, string bean, mustard, chili, tapilan, cadios, spinach, bountiful beans, patani, cowpea, carrot, upo, pineapple, mango, sinkamas, banana, papaya, batao, celery, melon, bell pepper, radish, seguidillas, beets

Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – Rice, corn, soybean, mungo, string bean, chayote, cabbage, pechay, mustard, gabi, chili, ampalaya, sweet potato, squash, okra, ubi, cassava, sweet pepper, patola, ginger, onion, peanut, tomato, bountiful beans, patani, sinkamas, cowpea, lettuce, carrot, upo, cauliflower, pineapple, mango, banana, papaya, potato, taro, garlic, coconut, peas, tapilan, batao, cadios, celery, cucumber, melon, radish, eggplant, durian, beets, white potato, chili

  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, Caraga, BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Visayas, Caraga, BARMM
  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)
  • Rice – Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, Bicol Region, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region, MIMAROPA, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga
  • Maturing/Ripening/Harvesting Stage
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN
  • Sugarcane, squash, okra, pechay, eggplant, string bean, cabbage, radish, ampalaya, sweet potato, tomato, onion, cucumber, broccoli, baguio beans, lettuce, chayote, beets, lemon, wombok cabbage, bell pepper, potato, cauliflower, carrot, coffee, patola, upo, pepper, taro, chili, sweet pepper, gabi, ginger, cassava, fern leaves, cucurbits, mushroom, peanut, habichuelas, garlic, coconut, mustard, batao, cadios, patani, soybean, celery, green onion, winged bean, cacao, ubi, tamarind, calamansi, mango, watermelon, melon, rambutan, pineapple, strawberry, jackfruit, dalandan, pomelo, mangosteen, marang, banana, papaya, durian, lanzones
  • Farm Operations:
  • Watering of plants
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizer application
  • Removal of weeds
  • Pruning
  • Cultivation of farm
  • Spraying of herbicide and insecticide
  • Fungicide application
  • Pest and disease management
  • Copra making
  • Cleaning of canals and dikes
  • Urban Gardening
  • Drying, threshing and milling of rice
  • Milling of Sugarcane
  • Delivery of fresh produce in the market

The agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pest and disease infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of Project SARAi ( For daily farm weather and climate conditions, you may visit PAGASA website(
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the country during the month of January are the northeast monsoon, shear line, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), localized thunderstorms, low pressure areas (LPAs), and zero or one tropical cyclone (TC) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Near to above normal rainfall conditions will be experience in most parts the country except for some areas in Abra, Ilocos Region, and most parts of Central Luzon which may receive below normal rainfall. However, the probability for above normal rainfall condition is still high.
  • Below average to above average surface air temperatures will generally feel over the entire country during the forecast period. Cold surges and some chances of frost occurrences are possible during the month of January.
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 9.4ºC – 27.9ºC for upland farms while 13.0ºC – 35.5ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 19.9ºC – 34.5ºC; while the upland farms in Mindanao will have 13.4ºC – 33.3ºC and 18.6ºC – 36.5ºC for lowland farms.
  • ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory No. 15: La Niña is weakening and is expected to persist until Dec- Jan-Feb (DJF) 2023, then transition to ENSO-neutral afterwards.
PAGASA will continue to closely monitor the climate conditions that may affect the country and updates shall be issued as appropriate. For further information, please contact the Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD) at telephone number 8284-0800, local 905.
Issued: January 2023
Farm Weather Services Section (FWSS))
Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD)
Cropping Calendar from Department of Agriculture
Images courtesy of PAGASA CAD-CLIMPS

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Chief, CAD