Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

May 2023


  • Cloudiness with rainshowers and thunderstorms were mostly experienced over the southern Luzon, and Eastern Visayas during the passage of TD Amang (11-13 April). Generally, partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated rainshowers and thunderstorms were mostly observed over the whole archipelago. Moreover, warm and humid air continue to affect the country.
  • Near to above rainfall conditions were observed over Central and Southern Luzon, most areas in Visayas and Mindanao while way below to below normal rainfall conditions were recorded over Northern Luzon, Central Visayas, Southern Leyte, Surigao provinces, and Zamboanga City. The Borongan Synoptic Station in Eastern Samar recorded the highest rainfall amount for the month of April (390.3 mm), followed by Pili Station in Camarines Sur (379.2 mm) and PCA, Davao Station (366.7 mm).
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Baler, Tarlac, Camarines Norte, Sorsogon, Northern Samar, Samar, Eastern Samar, most parts of Davao region, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur
    • Moist – Alabat, Camarines Sur, Albay, Catanduanes, Negros Occidental, Leyte, and rest of Caraga
    • Dry – Rest of the country
  • Generally, near to slightly below average surface air temperatures were felt in most parts of Luzon and Visayas while Mindanao experienced near to slightly above average temperatures (Figure 2). Hacienda Luisita Agromet Station in Tarlac recorded the highest maximum temperature of 38.0°C (April 30) while the coldest temperature was recorded in BSU Agromet Station at 13.9°C (April 8).

  • Land and Seedbed Preparation (including preparation for garden plot, urban gardening, and upland farms), (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Cagayan Valley, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, and Caraga
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – tobacco, lettuce, mushroom, tomato, onion, chili, pechay, string bean, malunggay, coconut, banana, papaya, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, chayote, onion leeks, potato, beets, cucumber, carrot, coffee, strawberry, wombok cabbage, coffee, beans, soy, mango, kangkong, eggplant, okra, patola, squash, upo, celery, garlic, tomato, mushroom, ampalaya, sweet potato, ubi, sincamas, guyabano, caimito, chico, avocado, calamansi, alugbati, ampalaya, camote tops, pepper, herbs, batao, cadios, spinach, rambutan, cashew, sugarcane, taro, chili, cacao, peanut, and mustard
Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, and large portion of eastern Mindanao) – batao, seguidillas, string bean, lettuce, eggplant, okra, patola, squash, upo, onion, garlic, tomato, mushroom, sweet potato, banana, papaya, guyabano, caimito, calamansi, ampalaya, cabbage, pechay, peanut, pepper, chili, mung bean, squash, ginger, cassava, taro, coconut, mung bean, mustard, malunggay, melon, peanut, spinach, watermelon, papaya, mango, banana, patani, cucumber, radish, guyabano, pineapple, rubber, pomelo, and mango
Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, and most of eastern Palawan) – upo, sweet potato, ampalaya, tomato, ginger, cassava, okra, pechay, mustard, patola, banana, coconut, coffee, mung bean, lettuce, cucumber, ampalaya, cabbage, chili, eggplant, string bean, garlic, pineapple, avocado, calamansi, string bean, celery, chayote, onion leeks, onion, squash, lettuce, upo, peanut, cauliflower, cucumber, banana, coconut, cauliflower, pomelo, banana, melon, mango, pineapple, calamansi, and watermelon
Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – sweet potato, gabi, cassava, radish, ubi, ginger, squash, okra, mung bean, patani, celery, cucumber, eggplant, patola, ampalaya, sweet pepper, pechay, coconut, cabbage, upo, mangosteen, jackfruit, banana, calamansi, papaya, lettuce, mustard, pechay, upo, patola, spinach, rubber, watermelon, string bean, tomato, marang, pomelo, durian, mango, avocado, papaya, celery, seguidillas, coffee, patola, kutchai, potato, chayote, mushroom, carrot, mustard, cauliflower, peanut
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, CALABARZON, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and BARMM

  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)
  • Rice – Bicol Region, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN
  • Maturing/Ripening
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Harvesting Stage
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
Tobacco, cadios, squash, okra, string bean, tomato, pechay, eggplant, carrot, garlic, onion, labuyo, sweet corn, papaya, chico, mango, sincamas, mushroom, coconut, sweet pepper, chili, banana, sweet potato, cabbage, broccoli, habichuelas, cassava, okra, celery, cucumber, sincamas, watermelon, Baguio beans, banana, calamansi, lettuce, beets, pepper, lemon, broccoli, potato, taro, ubi, cassava, sweet potato, carrot, cabbage, chayote, calamansi, banana, papaya, mango, longan, strawberry, cauliflower, chili, calamansi, bell pepper, broccoli, potato, carrot, papaya, guava, chico, mango, melon, rambutan, pomelo, rambutan, lanzones, coffee, avocado, atis, durian, pineapple, mangosteen, guyabano, jackfruit, caimito, marang, lanzones, avocado, malunggay, camote tops, alugbati, kangkong, onion leeks, pechay, mustard, habichuelas, cashew, coconut, peanut, pili nut, rubber, sincamas, cucurbits, radish, yam, ubi, turnip,
  • Farm Operations:
  • Land and seedbed preparation
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizer application
  • Removal of weeds
  • Pest and disease management
  • Copra making
  • Cleaning of canals and dikes
  • Drying, threshing and milling of rice
  • Storing of rice
  • Water management
  • Delivery of fresh produce in the market

The agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pest and disease infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of Project SARAi ( For daily farm weather and climate conditions, you may visit PAGASA website (
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the country during the month of May are the easterlies, low pressure areas (LPAs), ridge of high pressure area (HPA), Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), localized thunderstorms, and one or two (1 or 2) tropical cyclone (TC) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Generally, near normal rainfall condition is expected over the whole archipelago (Figure 4).
  • For the month, near to warmer surface temperature will be experienced over the whole archipelago except for slightly cooler temperature which is expected over Romblon, Mindoro provinces and Camarines provinces. Warmer and humid weather conditions are expected to be experienced. The public and all concerned government agencies are advised to take precautionary measures to minimize heat stress, optimize the daily use of water for personal and domestic consumption, and prevent any accompanying health risks associated with this climate condition.
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 15.0ºC – 28.1ºC for upland farms while 18.8ºC – 40.0ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 21.6ºC – 37.2ºC; while the upland farms in Mindanao will have 16.0ºC – 35.2ºC and 21.4ºC – 38.3ºC for lowland farms.
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Alert and Warning System: EL NIÑO WATCH.

Recent conditions and model forecasts indicate that El Niño may emerge in the coming season (June-July-August) at 80% probability and may persist until the first quarter of 2024.
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