Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

September 2021


  • During the month of September, the weather systems that affected the country were the southwest (SW) monsoon, monsoon trough, easterlies, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), low pressure areas (LPAs), tropical cyclones, and localized thunderstorms.
  • Two tropical cyclones namely, Typhoon (TY) “Jolina” (September 6 - 9) and TY “Kiko” (September 7 - 12) developed/entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) during the month. TY “Jolina” developed over east of Surigao Del Norte. It crossed over Eastern Visayas and emerged over the coastal waters of Zambales Province. Significant rains were observed over Leyte, Tayabas and Eastern Samar. Heavy rains were also experienced over Western Visayas, NCR, MIMAROPA except the southern portion of Palawan, the rest of Eastern Visayas and CALABARZON. Meanwhile, TY “Kiko” entered the PAR and passed over Batanes including Babuyan Islands. As the southwest monsoon was enhanced, heavy rains were observed over western section of Luzon and Visayas.
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Most areas of the country
    • Moist – Batanes, Batac, Laguna, Samar, Visca, Puerto Princesa, Cuyo, Iloilo, and General Santos
    • Dry – Misamis Oriental and Zamboanga del Sur
  • Most parts of the country experienced near to above normal rainfall conditions (Figure 1) while below normal rainfall conditions were observed over northern Luzon. Malaybalay, Bukidnon Synoptic Station recorded the highest total monthly rainfall (640 mm), followed by Tayabas, Quezon Synoptic Station (592.1 mm).
  • Near to warmer than average surface temperatures were generally felt in most parts of Luzon and Mindanao while Visayas and southern part of Luzon experienced slightly below to near average surface temperatures (Figure 2). The highest maximum temperature for the month of September has reached 36.0°C in Tuguegarao, Cagayan (September 30) while the coldest temperature of 15.5°C was recorded in Baguio City (September 3).
  • ENSO-neutral conditions still persist in the tropical Pacific. ENSO Alert System Status is La Niña Watch.
  • Land and Seedbed Preparation (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • In most parts of the country for the first dekad of the month; In Central Luzon, Region 6, Davao and CARAGA Region for the rest of the month
  • For other cash crops, including urban gardening, and upland farms in most parts of the country
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
  • Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – tomato, sweet pepper, munggo, tapilan, endive, cucumber, and eggplant, ampalaya, and string bean
  • Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, large portion of eastern Mindanao) – upland rice, rainy season corn, eggplant, squash, patola, tomato, carrot, okra, ginger, sweet potato, gabi, ubi, and sweet pepper
  • Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, most of eastern Palawan) upland rice, corn, munggo, peanut, cassava, carrot, ubi, and ginger eggplant cucumber, munggo, sweet pepper, tomato, ampalaya, patola, okra, tapilan, arrowroot, sweet potato, gabi and leafy vegetables
  • Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – lowland rice, corn, peanut, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower, sweet pepper, ginger, okra, squash, ampalaya, string bean, spinach, gabi, chayote, garlic, red and white onions, and beets
  • Establishment Stage (germination, pre-emergence, seedling, transplanting)
  • Rice and corn – in selected farm rice areas of the country
  • Other crops such as – tomato, sweet pepper, munggo, tapilan, endive, cucumber, eggplant, ampalaya, and string bean - in most vegetable farm areas of the country
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)
  • Rice and corn – selected farms in Ilocos Region, Central Luzon, Laguna, Cagayan Valley, Mindoro, Marinduque, western Visayas, and central and southern Mindanao
  • Other crops such as tomato, munggo, ubi, ginger, cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, squash, gabi, onions, pechay, mustard, eggplant, sweet potato, squash, patola, carrot, okra, sweet pepper, ginger, and ubi – in most vegetable farm areas of the country
  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)in different irrigated and rainfed farm areas of Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Region, Laguna, Central Luzon, Batangas, Marinduque, Mindoro, Bicol, Bohol, Western Visayas, southern Cebu, northern Samar, northern and southern Mindanao
  • Other crops such as patola, ampalaya, squash, okra, dragon fruit, mangosteen, rambutan, cotton, tomato, bountiful beans, gabi, celery, cauliflower, banana, cabbage, cucumber, sweet potato, papaya, peanut, sweet peas, upo, radish, patani, beets, guyabano, lettuce, and sweet pepper – different farm areas of the country
  • Maturing/Ripening/ Harvesting Stage – most farm rice areas of the country
  • Luzon:
  • Rice, corn, calamansi, cucumber , peanut, pechay, tomato, jute, lettuce, squash, ubi, ampalaya, potato, sweet pepper, string bean, patola, gabi, tapilan, arrowroot, carrot, condol, chayote, talinum, upo, cabbage, eggplant, watermelon, santol, banana, guyabano, dragon fruit, sugarcane, muskmelon, seguidillas garlic ginger, okra, sweet potato papaya, and cassava
  • Visayas:
  • Jackfruit, string bean, chayote, pechay, cabbage, avocado, carrot, munggo, cucumber eggplant, upo, tomato, white potato, sweet potato, lettuce, soybean, pineapple, guyabano, okra, melon, indian mango, gabi, cassava, ubi, watermelon, ladies’ finger, sweet corn, ginger, santol, and cotton fruit
  • Mindanao:
  • durian, marang, guyabano, banana, pineapple, sweet pepper, rambutan, pomelo, peanut, watermelon, jackfruit, cassava, eggplant, yellow corn, chayote, pechay, cabbage, lettuce, celery, ginger, cucumber, upo, garlic, squash, bountiful beans, okra, papaya, string bean, sweet peas, tomato, and radish
  • Farm Operations: (some farm activities are affected by TY “Jolina” and TY “Kiko”, southwest monsoon rains, and the Community Quarantine in some areas)
  • Drained flooded farm areas, removed impediments on canals and ditches and repaired levees destroyed by strong winds, heavy rains and floods
  • Regularly cleaned creeks, canals and ditches to provide natural flow of water specially during heavy rainfall;
  • Prepared land and seedbeds, planted, transplanted different crops;
  • Harvested, stored and delivered fresh produce in the marketplace;
  • Watering and irrigation activities using pump in dry fields;
  • In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to share and browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pests and diseases infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of SARAI project ( and search KlimAgrikultura by ACIAR project. For daily farm weather and climate conditions, they can also visit PAGASA website (
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the whole country during the month of September are the low pressure areas (LPAs), southwest monsoon, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), easterlies, localized thunderstorms, and two or three tropical cyclones (TCs) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Generally, near to above normal rainfall conditions are expected over the whole country (Figure 4).
  • Near to warmer temperatures will be experienced over the entire archipelago except over the western side of northern Luzon, Romblon and Mindoro which will have cooler to slightly cooler surface temperatures (Figure 5).
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 14.0ºC – 26.5ºC for upland farms while 17.9ºC – 37.1ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 20.0ºC – 36.1ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 17.2ºC – 33.4ºC and 18.3ºC – 36.5ºC for lowland farms.
  • Transition from ENSO-neutral conditions to La Niña is favoured in the coming months with 70-80% chance of La Niña forming in the last quarter of 2021 which may persist until the first quarter of 2022. ENSO Alert System Status is La Niña Alert.
PAGASA will continue to closely monitor the climate conditions that may affect the country and updates shall be issued as appropriate. For further information, please contact the Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD) at telephone number 8284-0800, local 905.
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Chief, CAD