Astronomical Diary
lastquarterjpg newmoonjpg firstquarter.jpg
Last Quarter New Moon First Quarter Full Moon
Oct 29
4:05 AM
Oct 6
7:05 PM
Oct 13
11:25 AM
Oct 20
10:57 PM
Current Condition

Speed: 427.2 km/sec
Density: 10.6 protons/cm3
More Data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Sep 30 at 1520 UT

Sunspots AR2877 and AR2880 have 'beta-gamma' magnetic fields that harbor energy for M-class solar flares.

Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory(SDO)/
Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI).
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max:
C1 1249 UT Sep30
24-hr: C2 2156 UT Sep29
Updated: Sep 30 at 1525 UT

Sun: 30 Sep 2021
Time (PST) of rise and set of some planets at 10-day interval
Rise Set Rise Set Rise Set Rise Set Rise Set
Oct 8 6:02 AM 5:43 AM 9:03 AM 8:18 PM 5:48 AM 5:41 PM 2:42 PM *2:17 AM 1:44 PM *1:09 AM
Oct 18 4:50 AM 4:46 PM 9:12 AM 8:21 PM 5:36 PM 5:23 AM 2:02 PM *1:37 AM 1:05 PM *12:30 AM
Oct 28 4:38 AM 4:33 PM 9:20 AM 8:25 PM 5:24 PM 5:06 AM 1:24 PM *12:58 AM 12:27 PM 11:48 PM

* = following day
Astronomical Events October 2021

Meteor Shower

The October Orionid meteor shower will be active from 17-25 October 2021. At maximum rates, the shower may reach 15 meteors per hour that may be observed at favorable sky conditions, but sometimes there are lulls even during the traditional maximum peak nights of 21-22 October 2021. Unfortunately, the bright Moon will interfere with the observations of fainter meteors. The Earth is passing through the stream of debris left behind by Comet Halley, the parent comet of the Orionid shower. The radiant of the shower will be observed north of Betelgeuse as shown in Figures 2 & 2a.
Figure 2
Figure 2a
Stars and Constellations

The Square of Pegasus ( an asterism of the constellation of Andromeda, the Chained Maiden which is made up of four stars of nearly equal brightness namely: Scheat, Alpheratz, Markab, and Algenib) takes center stage in the Philippine night sky after sunset, which is a sign of the arrival of the northern fall. Northeast of it lies the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), the closest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way Galaxy as shown in Figures 1 & 1a. Under clear skies and with the aid of a star map and familiarity with the surrounding background stars, it can be seen as an elongated misty patch with the naked eye and can be easily viewed through binoculars and telescopes. The splendid W formation of stars known as the constellation of Cassiopeia, the wife of King Cepheus and the mother of Andromeda in Greek mythology, lies to the left, while the constellation of Pisces, the Fish can be found at the lower right of Pegasus.

The famous equilateral triangle in the sky, known as the Winter Triangle rises after midnight. The Triangle formed by the stars is composed of Betelgeuse, the supergiant red star and the prominent star of the famous constellation Orion, (the Mighty Hunter), Sirius, the brightest star in the sky of the constellation Canis Major (the Big Dog), and Procyon, the brightest star of the constellation Canis Minor (the Little Dog).

Figure 1
Figure 1a
Planets Whereabout

On 01 October at 7:00 PM, Venus will be found at about 15 degrees above the west southwestern horizon during the month. It will be shining brilliantly at magnitude -4.10 and will lie among the constellation of Libra, the Scale. It will be observable during the entire month.

Also, Saturn and Jupiter will be easily spotted at about 55 and 51 degrees above the south southeastern horizon, shining at magnitudes +0.4 and -2.7, respectively. Both planets will lie among the background stars of the constellation Capricornus, the Sea-Goat. They will remain visible in the night sky throughout the month.

Neptune on the other hand, will be located at about 34degrees above the east southeastern horizon which abode among the background stars of the constellation Aquarius, the Water-Bearer with a magnitudes +7.80. Observing this planet will require a binocular or a telescope and a star map under dark and clear sky conditions.

On the same date and time at 10:00 PM, Uranus will be found 34 degrees above the eastern horizon during the month. It will be glowing at magnitude +5.6 and resides among the stars of the constellation Aries, the Ram.

Mercury and Mars will be difficult to observe due to their proximity to the Sun during the month

Figure 4 shows how to compare apparent magnitudes of celestial bodies such as planets and stars.

Figure 4

8 Mars in conjunction with the Sun 12:00 PM
9 Moon at perigee (nearest distance to Earth = 363,387 km) 1:00 AM
9 Ceres stationary 3:00 AM
10 Mercury in inferior conjunction 12:00 AM
11 Saturn stationary 10:00 AM
15 Jupiter 4° North of the Moon 6:00 PM
17 Neptune 4° North of the Moon 10:00 PM
18 Mercury stationary 9:00 AM
18 Jupiter stationary 7:00 PM
24 Moon at apogee (farthest distance to Earth = 405,614 km) 11:00 PM
25 Mercury greatest elongation W (18 deg) 2:00 PM
30 Venus greatest elongation E(47 deg) 5:00 AM


Regarding the publication on page 2 of the ALMANAC FOR GEODETIC ENGINEERS 2020, which contains the data for the EPHEMERIS OF THE SUN, it was verified that the February 29, 2020 date is missing but the data for the particular date is the data printed as March 1, 2020. The data printed from April 3 to December 31 are all correct.

Kindly refer to the image/link below for the data errata on the Ephemeris of the Sun 2020.
Errata of AGE 2020, page 2
(Errata of AGE 2020 pdf file)